The medical & biomedical engineering textbook



B. Bo Sramek, Jaroslav Valenta, Frantisek Klimes

530 pages, 460 illustrations and tables and over 1100 references

published by

The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University
and the Foundation for Biomechanics of Man, Prague, Czech Republic

ISBN 80-900054-3-8


1. A brief historical overview

2. Basic biomechanical properties of cardiovascular system

Biomechanics of human heart, Mechanical processes, Heart valves opening and closing, Conduction impulses, Cellular membranes potentials, Action potentials, Sacromere, Basic mechanical properties of the heart muscle, Starling’s law, Optimum activity, ECG, Ballistocardiogram, Models of mechanical responses, Ventricular compliance, Left ventricular work and power, Mechanical responses of right ventricle, Mitral regurgitation, Arterial hypertension, Tachycardia, Bradycardia, Mathematical modeling

3. Mechanical properties of some parts of cardiovascular system

Hyper- and hypoelasticity – modeling, Stress rates tensors, Polar decomposition theorem, Stress rates, Hypoelastic materials, Tissue behavior, Biological time, Strain energy function, Mechanical properties of the heart muscle, arteries and veins

4. Mechanical properties of passive and active cardiac muscle

The architecture of heart muscle, Myocytes, Finite element model, Differences between heart and skeletal muscles, Mechanical dysfunction, Passive heart muscle mechanical properties, Constitutive equation, Regional stress and deformation, Pseudostrain energy function, Residual stress, Active intact myocardium constitutive equation, Biomechanical model of the intact ventricle in the course of heart cycle, The influence of myocardial deformation on the blood flow through coronary arteries, Myocardial ischemia, Angina pectoris, Infarction, mechanical interactions, Myocardial rupture, Cardiomyopathy – dilated and hypertrophic, Pressure overload, Volume overload

5. Modeling cardiac mechanical activity

First, second and third generation models, Mathematical modeling, Parameters of the l.v. function as a pump, Stroke volume and cardiac output, Ejection rate, Work and contractility, Mechanical efficiency, Systolic time intervals, Ejection fraction, Diastolic time intervals, dP/dt, Heart score, Ejection rate,, Velocity-synergy index, Unloaded muscle contraction, Myocardial elasticity and viscosity, Passive diastolic stiffness

6. Energetics of cardiac muscle

Balance laws, Conservation of mass, Entropy balance, Myocardial thermodynamics, Tension tensor, Chemical reaction, Dissipative power, Isotonic and isometric contraction, Alternative models

7. Hemodynamics and its role in oxygen transport

Global blood flow, Blood pressures, Cardiac output and its relation to body mass, Blood pressure/blood flow relationship, Oxygen transport, Systemic hemodynamics, Hemodynamic modulators, Preload, Contractility, Afterload, Isovolumic and ejection phase contractility, Left stroke work index, Stroke systemic vascular resistance index, Hemodynamic goal, Hemodynamic management, Hemodynamic management chart, Hemodynamic response to different therapies, Case study

8. Hydrodynamics of the cardiovascular system

Blood flow hydrodynamics, Heart and large vascular tubes, Stability of laminary pulsation flow, Microcirculation, Rheological blood properties, Mathematical-physical models of pulsation flow in rigid and elastic tubes, Newtonian fluid, Tube elastic wall, Approximative analytical solution, Numerical processing, Viscoelastic properties of tubes and pressure pulsation speed, Mechanical support systems, Hydrodynamics of artificial heart, Turbulent shear stress downstream of mechanical valves

9. Pulmonary circulation

Morphology and function of pulmonary blood vessels, Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance, Pulmonary hypertension, Vascular smooth muscle and wall matrix, Endothelial cells, Vasoconstriction, Lung injury

10. Biomechanics of the aortic and mitral valve

Geometrical and mechanical properties, Analysis of semilunar aortic cusp, Loading of closed mitral valve, Mitral valve papillary muscle system, Valvular defects, Heart valve replacements, Bioprosthetic valves, Characteristics, Problems of heart valve replacements

11. Structural and mechanical properties of human blood vessels

Large and medium lumen arteries, Static mechanical properties, Elasticity, Residual stress, Dynamic response, Biomechanics of the microvascular system, Vasomotorics, Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of arterioles, Veins, Pressure pulsation in veins, Vascular diseases, Venous system, Arterial valve and atherosclerosis, Mechanical effects, Blood vessel prostheses, Vascular grafts, Biomechanics of lungs, Surface tension in alveoles, Elasticity of alveolar sheet and lung tissue, Breathing control, Pulmonary circulation diseases

12. Mechanical properties of blood and heat transfer by blood

Blood and plasma viscosity, Motion, deformation and interaction of red blood cells, Size and shape of erythrocytes, Red blood cell membrane, deformation and shearing stress, Sedimentation, Anemia, Hemolysis, White blood cell, Rheological properties, Dysfunction, Thrombocytes, Aggregation and adhesion, Coagulation, Heat transfer in periphery tissue, Skin, Bioheat transfer, Weinbaum-Jiji equation

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